My understanding is that the past 500 years has been one of intense pain for the all South Africans.
The people who traditionally lived in South Africa invited others to share their “home”. The visitors progressively evicted the indigenous people by force as well as other more sophisticated but unjust means. They then systemically accelerate development using western modernization theory (Rostov etc). In the process, people’s history, traditions and sub cultures become savagely repressed or even distorted creating an identity crisis.
This range of historic patterns of oppression have affected all: e.g. the English being banished in the name of King and country to foreign lands of the “noble savages” , the concentration camps of 1901 and the 1920 strikes saw white Afrikaners being severely traumatised, besides the European barbaric world wars. The Black population have lost their land and dignity.
The strategy of accelerating upward mobilty in the 90’s has produced a false expectation of reaching upper class material wealth by Black South Africans. The slow land restitution process has compounded matters. In these situations the Mussolini’s of the world flourish using radical rhetoric to cover their elitist greed.
Mahmood Mamdani has reminded us that the most oppressed layers in society can become killers overnight -this makes real restitution amongst other strategies a vital element to avoid an internalised xenophobic outburst imminent!!